Ionic Equations

Advanced Placement 2-Day Science Conference

December 1 - 2, 2000

Houston Airport Marriott Hotel

Houston, Texas


Video Discs

The Periodic Table Videodisc (J Chem Ed Software)

Chemistry Comes Alive (J Chem Ed Software)

Redox Video Disc (Synaps, Inc.)

Shakhashiri Chemical Demonstrations Videotapes/VideoDisc (Saunders College Publishing)

Doing Chemistry (ACS)

World of Chemistry (VideoDiscovery)

CD-ROMs (Mac or PC)

Periodic Table Live (Special edition 17; J Chem Ed Software)

Alkali Metal reactions with Water

Chemistry Comes Live Volume 1 (Special edition 18; J Chem Ed Software)

Reaction of Potassium and Bromine

Reaction of Sodium and Chlorine

Chemistry Comes Live Volume 2 (Special edition 21; J Chem Ed Software)

Ammonia Fountain 1

Ammonia Fountain 2

Ice Bomb


Ragsdale, Ronald O.; Zipp, Arden P. Helping students to improve their approach to predicting the products of chemical reactions. J. Chem. Educ. 1992 69 390.

Laboratory Experiments


Conductivity: Student version : Teacher Version

Solubility: Student version : Teacher Version

Web Based:

Flash Animation Lab: Activity of Metals, Laboratory Inquiry Activity: Inquiry Activity

Gas Law (MoLE): JAVA Lab, Laboratory Inquiry Activity: Inquiry Activity

Some Web Sites

Chemical Reactions Lecture Notes (J. Gelder's Web Site)

Lecture on September 25, 2000 Introduction to soluble ionic compounds, the solubility table, ionic and net ionic equations.

Lecture on September 27, 2000 Double replacement reactions, neutralization reactions and single replacemetn reactions and writing ionic and net ionic equations.

Important ions

Chemical Reactions AP Questions


The first reaction my students see occurs on the second day of class when I define a chemical reaction. The reactions I usually do are;

Fe(s) + S8(s) ---> FeS(s)

Al(s) + Br2(l) ---> AlBr3(s) (Actually Al2Br6(s))

I show these reactions from videodiscs and have the student describe what they see. Initially all I'm trying to do is to demonstrate chemical change. I usually describe these as formation/synethesis reactions.

To help me early on to lay the ground work for chemical reactions my students begin to memorize several things;

the name and the symbols of the first 20 elements, plus about thirteen additional common elements;

the formula for ALL of the elements in the periodic table;

the phase of ALL of the elements in the periodic table. This is the phase of every element at room temperature (25 degrees Celsius).

In the second chapter of most textbooks students must earn nomenclature, learning monoatomic and polyatomic ions and very simple differences between ionic and covalent compounds as determined by the formula of the compound. So I discuss nomenclature of simple binary ionic and binary covalent compounds.

Since they must learn how to write the formulas I discuss how to use the periodic table to arrive at the most common oxidation state for the monatomic cations and anions.

I have already told the students to memorize the first 20 elements in the periodic table and their formula, symbol and name, and 20 additional common elements. Students are also told to memorize the phase of every element in the periodic table. In the nomenclature section they are also expected to memorize the common polyatomic anions and common acids. I also work in the common bases and the first ten alkanes.

So by the end of Chapter 2 of the text the students are overwhelmed with a large amount of memorization, but they are also poised to do a considerable amount of reaction chemistry…

Nomenclature of simple binary ionic compounds, symbol and phase of the elements and the students are able to write an formation reaction for binary ionic compound. I discuss the periodic table in terms of the Group I-VIIIA elements. I talk about the magic nature of the noble gas elements Group VIIIA. Groups IA elements like to lose one electron to have a number of electrons equivalent to the nearest noble gas. Group IIA like to lose two electrons, Group VIIA like to gain electrons. The students are told the transition metals like to lose two or three electrons.

Nomenclature for simple binary covalent compounds, symbol and phase of the elements and students are prepared to write the formation equation for several (not many) simple binary organic compounds. H2O, CO2, CO, NO2, SO2, NH3.

Nomenclature for ionic compounds with polyatomic anions and we are close to doing all the double replacement reactions. All that is needed is the solubility table. That comes in by Chapter 4 or 5. I do not discuss double replacement reactions until I discuss the nature of ionic compounds in water…solubility and the solubility table.

I always have a pair of laboratories that I have the students do when I’m covering this material. One is titled Conductivity, and the other is titled Solubility.

Nomenclature of simple binary acids and ternary acids, and simple ionic bases sets up neutralization reactions. While I cover the nomenclature in chapter 2 I do not discuss neutralization reactions until solution stoichiometry and titrations.

Since the students know the first ten alkanes they are ready to handle combustion reaction for hydrocarbons. I add nitrogen and sulfur containing hydrocarbons and discuss the the new products. I also introduce alcohols and their combustion products.

Single replacement reactions I do by demonstrations, Group I elements with water, Group II elements with hydrochloric acid. This semester I do discuss single of the elemetnal form reacting with a soluble metallic ionic salt. However, I did not discuss the activity series this semester.

Can view these reactions by going to my Web Site and entering CHEM1314 as the userid and avogadro as the password.

Chemical Reaction Summary Information

Here are the catagories of commonly selected reactions which appear on the AP Chemistry Examination

Synthesis (Formation or direct combination) reactions

Decomposition reactions

Single replacement reactions

Combustion reactions

Redox reactions

Double replacement reactions

Neutralization reactions

Complex Ion reactions