Module developed by Michael Abraham, Donna Coshow, and William Fix, the Oklahoma team.

Most college general chemistry texts thoroughly treat equilibrium. Various aspects of equilibrium include: general equilibrium, weak acid and base behavior, aqueous equilibrium (buffer solutions and solubility product), and dissociation (or formation) constants for complexes.

Davenport, D. (1985, February). When push comes to shove: Disturbing the equilibrium. Chem Matters, 3(1), 14-15.

This is a brief discussion of Le Chatelier’s Principle.

Goran, M. H. (1967). The story of Fritz Haber . Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.

Lund, E. W. (1968). Activated complex—a centenarian? A tribute to Leopold Pfaundler. Journal of Chemical Education, 45, 125.

An historical account of the ideas of a pioneer in equilibrium theory.

Oesper, R. E. (1931). The scientific career of Henry Louis LeChatelier. Journal of Chemical Education, 8, 442-461.

Parker, S. P. (Ed.). (1987). McGraw-Hill encyclopedia of science and technology (6th Ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

This is a very good reference source for discussion information or student research information on many topics relating to equilibrium. This set is available in many schools and public libraries.

Runquist, E. A., and Runquist, O. (1972). Passage of fruit flies through a hole, a model for a reversible chemical reaction. Journal of Chemical Education, 49, 534.

Slabaugh, W. H. (1967, November). Chemical equilibrium. The Science Teacher, 34(8), 61-66.

This is a brief discussion of equilibrium and how it is taught.