What's Important

Exam IV:

Chapter 8:

Section 8.2...introduces the multi-electron atom and several important ideas that are essential when dealing with many electrons. These ideas include effective nuclear charge, shielding and penetration of electrons.

Section 8.4...trends in atomic size, ionization energy and electron affinity. All of these trends depend on using effective nuclear charge, shielding, inner core and valence electrons to explain. This is very important.

Section 8.5...discussion of metallic behavior trends in the periodic table, acid-base behavior of metallic and nonmetallic oxides (chemical reaction), electron configuration of ions (covered on Exam III, but still important on exam IV), magnetic properties, and ionic radii.

Chapter 9:

Section 9.1...introduces ionic and covalent bonding, and Lewis structures of atoms.

Section 9.2...the ionic bond model, how ionic bonds form, what an ionic bond is, and strengths of ionic bonds. The Born Haber cycle is discussed as an energy cycle that can be used to determine the lattice energy of an ionic compound. This section is very important. You want to be able to determine a lettice energy using the Born Haber cycle. Trends in lattice energy are also covered in this section.

Section 9.3...the covalent bond model, how covalent bonds form, what a covalent bond is, bond order, and bond energy are all introduced here.

Section 9.4...the concept of electronegativity is introduced in this section. Trends in electronegativity are covered, the concept of a polar covalent bond andnonpolar covalent bonds.

Section 9.5...metallic bonds. We did not discuss this in detail in class. Read it. I think it is pretty straight forward.

Chapter 10:

Section 10.1...octet rule for atoms and Lewis structures of compounds. This is a very important section. Resonance and formal charge are discussed in terms of Lewis structures to help understand experimental evidence. Exception to the octet rule are also discussed, electron deficient compounds, odd electron compounds and electron rich compounds.

Section 10.2...using bond energies and Lewis structures to determine the H of a chemical reaction. We discussed bond energies in Chapter 9, and now that we know Lewis structures for more complicated compounds we can calculate H of reactions for more interesting reactions.

Section 10.3...VSEPR is a model for determining the shapes of covalent compounds or polyatomic ions. This is a very important section. You must be able to draw the Lewis structure and then predict the shape of the molecule using VSEPR. Figures 10.6 - 10.11 are critical. You must know all the names of the possible shapes, and how to assign them to a molecule or polyatomic ion based on the types of electrons on the central atom. this section also discusses the concept of a bond angle and how bond angles vary with shape of the molecule.

Section 10.4...extends the concept of a polar bond to molecular polarity. Compounds contain polar bonds, but sometime the nature of the shape of the molecule will produce a nonpolar molecule. The idea of a dipole moment and how molecular polarity can explain some physical properties of compounds. Unlikely the material in Section 10.4 will appear on Exam IV or the Final Exam.


Exam III:

Chapter 6:

Section 6.1...this section contains the important definitions and ideas we use in the Chapter.

Section 6.2...this section discusses the difference between delta E and delta H, and defines endothermic and exothermic.

Section 6.3...this section discusses coffee-cup and bomb calorimetry. This section has lots of important calculations.

Section 6.4 - 6.6...deals with Hess' Law and calculations of heats of reaction using standard heats of formation.

Problem Sets 10 and 11 cover this chapter. Check out the recommended end of Chapter Problems at the Problem Set link.

Chapter 7:

Section 7.1...covers the definition of light and the electromagnetic spectrum. It also introduces the important experiments which define the relationship between frequency and energy and the quantized nature of light (photon).

Section 7.2...introduces line spectra of the elements and the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom. Though the Bohr model introduced the basic ideas of electron transitions between levels.

Section 7.3...discusses the weakness of the Bohr model and experiments that helped lead to a new model.

Section 7.4...describes the quantum mechanical model of the hydrogen atom and how it is different from Bohr's model. This section introduces the three quantum numbers which are required to define an orbital, and describes the different shapes of the orbitals.

Problem Sets 12 and 13 cover this chapter. Check out the recommended end of Chapter Problems at the Problem Set link.

Chapter 8:

Section 8.2...introduces the multi-electron atom and several important ideas that are essential when dealing with many electrons. These ideas include effective nuclear charge, shielding and penetration of electrons.

Section 8.3...discusses electron configuration and orbital diagrams for multi-electron atoms. You must be able to write the electron configuration for any element in the periodic table.

Section 8.5 (page 318 - 320)...covers electron configurations of ions.

Problem Set 13 cover portions of this chapter. Check out the recommended end of Chapter Problems at the Problem Set link.


Exam I:

Chapter 1:

Section 1.1...important definitions and ideas inthis section we talked quite a bit about all this stuff. We did not talk too much about energy. We will cover energy in more detail in Chapter 6. However these are basic energy ideas.

Section 1.2 and 1.3...I did not talk about this in class. Read, but do not memorize anything here. Read for the basic ideas.

Section 1.4...lots of good problem solving discussion here. Look over carefully, see how the discussion focuses on unit analysis.

Section 1.5...I asked you to memorize the prefixes, to be able to recognize the symbols for the different physical quantities, and to know the English conversions. Exam I will have a Useful information sheet with the important unit conversions between English and SI.

Section 1.6...this has all the significant figure stuff so you'd better know this well.

Check out the recommended end of Chapter Problems at the Problem Set link.

Chapter 2:

Section 2.1...You should know all the terms and definitions in this section.

Section 2.2...we did not discuss all the fundamental experiments and the results and how those result lead to the current Atomic View of Matter. You need to have an understanding of the basic ideas in this section as they are important for understanding most chemical concepts.

Section 2.3...this is an important section as it provides an introduction to Atomic Theory. Although I will not ask you to write down the important postulates you do need to understand them and be able to discuss them intelligently.

Section 2.4...read and enjoy. I did not dwell on the historical development of the atom in class.

Section 2.5...this was where I focused time and effort in class. So I expect you to know this material well.

Section 2.6...this is also important. Basic terms associated with the periodic table will follow us throughout the class; metals, nonmetals, periods, groups are all important.

Section 2.7...we will discuss the ideas introduced here several times over the course of the semester. So get this stuff down now, it is essential.

Section 2.8...more memory work here. tables 2.3, 2.4, 2.5 and 2.7 are all critical to knowing how to name compounds given a formula or to write a formula given a name. Learn this stuff well.

Section 2.9...read this section. I will not spend much time here, but these are important ideas. You will do an experiment (non-HBL) where separation is the focus.

Check out the recommended end of Chapter Problems at the Problem Set link.

Chapter 3

Sectins 3.1 and 3.2 are VERY important. Lots of important ideas and problems that MUST be well understood to grasp the more challenging ideas later in the Chapter. So get this stuff down WELL!

Section 3.3...some basic ideas of chemical equations. I think most of you have an understanding of the ideas in this section, but I will extend them a little. So get my notes on this material.

Check out the recommended end of Chapter Problems at the Problem Set link.

Common elements as of Friday, September 8, 2000

Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, I, Ba, Pt, Au, Hg, Pb, Ce

Exam II:

Chapter 3: Stoichiometry

Sections 3.1...review the mol, we need this for all the stoichiometry stuff, do not worry about percentage composition that was covered on Exam I;

Section 3.2...covered on exam I;

Section 3.3...we have to balance equations for Chapter 4;

Section 3.4...stoichiometry, limiting reagents, percent yield, all very important;

Section 3.5...molarity, preparing solutions and solution stoichiometry, also very important.

You need to know stoichiometry forwards, backwards, and all around. This is important stuff that reappears again in Introductory Chemistry.

Check out the recommended end of Chapter Problems at the Problem Set link.

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions

Section 4.1...what happens when ionic compounds dissolve in water;

Section 4.2...double replacement reactions, neutralization reactions and ionic and net ionic equations...very important, then there is also some solution stoichiometry, solubility table is discussed in this section also;

Section 4.3...do not worry about oxidation-reduction, oxidation numbers or balancing redox equations, but the titration stoichiometry in this section is still basic stoichiometry that you should know;

Section 4.4...combination reactions are what I've called formation reactions, do not worry about thermal or electrolytic decomposition reactions on page 159 and 160, you do need to know single replacement reactions, double replacement and combustion reactions on pages 160 - 164;

Section 4.5 ...do not worry about this section.

Check out the recommended end of Chapter Problems at the Problem Set link.

Chapter 5:

Section 5.1...important properties of gases;

Section 5.2...barometers and pressure, we did not discuss manometers, but they are pretty easy;

Section 5.3...basic gas laws, Boyle's law, Charles law, Avogadro's law and the Ideal Gas law, lots of calculations in this section, change of condition problems, single value problems;

Section 5.4...density, molar mass, like the laboratory experiment, and Dalton's Law of partial pressure;

Section 5.5...gas phase stoichiometry;

Section 5.6...Kinetic Molecular Theory of gases...very important;

Section 5.7...real gases and deviations from ideality.

Check out the recommended end of Chapter Problems at the Problem Set link.