1. Software published by Project SERAPHIM, Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1101 University Avenue, Madison, Wl 53706-1396: (608) 263-2837 (voice) or (608) 262-0381 (FAX).

    a. For the Apple II computer running on ProDOS: AR 301, AR 302, AR 305
    b. For the Apple II computer: AP 304, AP 305, AP 306, AP 307
    c. For IBM PCs and PC-compatibles: PC 2201, PC 2301

  2. "The Atom" videotape from the Ring of Truth series by Philip Morrison includes about a 3-min segment on the mole idea (reaction of different volume ratios of gases). Videotapes are available through PBS (800-424-7963). (To appreciate the entire tape, students probably need a broader understanding of chemistry than is held by the average student at the point in which development of the mole concept generally occurs in the high school chemistry course.) Essentially the entire text of the tape and all important visual images are also included in the book The Ring of Truth: An Inquiry Into How We Know What We Know by Philip and Phyllis Morrison (1987). PBS address (Ring of Truth):

    PBS Video
    1320 Braddock Place
    Alexandria, VA 22314
    (703) 739-5000

  3. The video Powers of Ten goes from galaxy size down to nuclear size. It may help students visualize the size of atoms and the comparison of Avogadro's number in terms of powers of ten (Morrison, 1982). Video available from Video Catalog, P.O. Box 64428, St. Paul, MN 55164-0428 or High Bridge Co., 1000 Westgate Drive, St. Paul, MN 55114-1631.

  4. CHEM Study Video: Vol. 12, Gases and How They Combine. (1989). Illustrates Avogadro's Hypothesis (equal volumes of gases contain equal numbers of molecules). Available from Ward's Natural Science Establishment, Inc., P.O. Box 92912, Rochester, NY 14692-9978.

  5. Videodiscs published by JCE: Software, a publication of the Journal of Chemical Education, Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1101 University Avenue. Madison, Wl 53706-1396: (608) 262-5153 (voice) or (608) 262-0381 (FAX).

    "A Generic Spectroscopic Instrument" and "The Mole - From Counting to Weighing," two chapters on The World of Chemistry: Selected Demonstrations and Animations: Disc I (double sided, 60 min.), Special Issue 3.

  6. The World of Chemistry videotape "Number 2: The Mole." World of Chemistry Videocassettes. Annenberg/CPB Project, P.O. Box 1922, Santa Barbara, CA 93116-1922; (800) 532-7637; World of Chemistry Series, Atlantic Video, 150 South Gordon Street, Alexandria, VA 22304; (703) 823-2800 or QUEUE Educational Video, 338 Commerce Drive, Fairfield, CT 06430; (800) 232- 2224.

    Equipment and Instrumentation

    A simple electrolysis apparatus suitable for the electrolysis of water to illustrate the relation of the mole to gas volume is available from laboratory equipment vendors.